Good research practice and artificial intelligence

This page offers a selection of literature on the topic of good research practice (GRP) and artificial intelligence (AI). This bibliography focusses on topics relating to research practice and science as a whole, rather than teaching and exams. Many statements from universities that mainly deal with the latter are therefore not listed. As developments in the field of AI are very fluid, there currently exists a certain consensus on the use of AI I science and scholarship, but there are still some heterogeneous recommendations with regard to details.

General Literature

ChatGPT und andere Computermodelle zur Sprachverarbeitung – Grundlagen, Anwendungspotenziale und mögliche Auswirkungen (Steffen Albrecht, Büro für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB), 2023).

Artifizielle und postartifizielle Texte. über die Auswirkungen Künstlicher Intelligenz auf die Erwartungen an literarisches und nichtliterarisches Schreiben (Hannes Bajohr, Sprache im technischen Zeitalter, Jahrgang 61, Heft 245, 2023).

The Case for Generative AI in Scholarly Practice (Chris Berg, SSRN, 2023). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4407587

Protecting scientific integrity in an age of generative AI (Wolfgang Blau, Vinton G. Cerf, Juan Enriquez et al., PNAS Volume 121, No. 22, 2024). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2407886121

Opinion Paper: “So what if ChatGPT wrote it?” Multidisciplinary perspectives on opportunities, challenges and implications of generative conversational AI for research, practice and policy (Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Nir Kashetri, Laurie Hughes et al., International Journal of Information Management, Volume 71, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2023.102642

Artificial Intelligence Act (AI Act), 2021.

Friend or Foe? Exploring the Implications of Large Language Models on the Science System (Benedikt Fecher, Marcel Hebing, Melissa Laufer et al., Arxiv, 2023). https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2306.09928

Textgenerierende KI und gute wissenschaftliche Praxis (Katrin Frisch, Felix Hagenström and Nele Reeg; ZfBB, Jahrgang 70, Heft 6, 2023). https://doi.org/10.3196/186429502370667

Didaktische und rechtliche Perspektiven auf KI-gestütztes Schreiben in der Hochschulbildung (Jonas Leschke und Peter Salden, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 2023). https://doi.org/10.13154/294-9734

The ethics of using artificial intelligence in scientific research: new guidance needed for a new tool (David. B. Resnik and Mohammad Hosseini; AI and Ethics, 2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43681-024-00493-8

Generative AI Product Tracker (Ithaka S+R, lists AI products in use in higher education and science and offers information on features and limitations among other things).


Authorship and AI

Artificial Intelligence and Authorship (Alysa Levene, COPE, 2023).

AI-Assisted Authorship: How to Assign Credit in Synthetic Scholarship (Ryan Jenkins und Patrick Lin, SSRN, 2023). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4342909

ChatGPT listed as author on research papers: many scientists disapprove (Chris Stokel-Walker, Nature, 2023).

We Asked GPT-3 to Write an Academic Paper about Itself—Then We Tried to Get It Published (Almira Osmanovic Thunström, Scientific American Magazine, Volume 327, Issue 3, 2022).


Disclosing the use of AI in publications

Handout for Citing AI Tools (Berlin Universities Publishing, 2024).

The ethics of disclosing the use of artificial intelligence tools in writing scholarly manuscripts (Mohammad Hosseini, David B. Resnik and Kristi Holmes, Research Ethics, Volume 19, Issue 4, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1177/17470161231180449

Using AI to write scholarly publications (Mohammad Hosseini, Lisa M. Rasmussen und David B. Resnik, Accountability in Research, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1080/08989621.2023.2168535

How to cite ChatGPT (Timothy McAdoo, American Psychological Association, 2023).

How do I cite generative AI in MLA style? (Modern Language Association, 2023).

Leitfaden «Aus KI zitieren» – Umgang mit auf Künstlicher Intelligenz basierenden Tools der Universität Basel


Violations and detection in relation to AI

Comparing scientific abstracts generated by ChatGPT to real abstracts with detectors and blinded human reviewers (Catherine A Gao, Frederick M. Howard, Nikolay S. Markov et al., npj Digital Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 75, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-023-00819-6

Urheberrechtliche Fragen der Textgenerierung durch Künstliche Intelligenz: Insbesondere Schöpfungen und Rechtsverletzungen durch GPT und ChatGPT (Roman Konertz, Wettbewerb in Recht und Praxis, Jahrgang 69, 2023). https://doi.org/10.18445/20230613-111651-0

Plagiarismus in Zeiten Künstlicher Intelligenz (Anika Limburg, Peter Salden, Margret Mundorf und Doris Weßels, Zeitschrift für Hochschulentwicklung, Jahrgang 17, Heft 3, 2022). https://doi.org/10.3217/zfhe-17-03/06

Why Nature will not allow the use of generative AI in images and video (Nature, 2023).

Per Prompt zum Plagiat? Rechtssicheres Publizieren von KI-generierten Inhalten (Ulrike Verch, API, Band 5, Nr. 1, 2024). https://doi.org/10.15460/apimagazin.2024.5.1.191

Testing of detection tools for AI-generated text (Debora Weber-Wulff, Alla Anohina-Naumeca, Sonja Bjelobaba, et al., International Journal for Education Integrity, Volume 19, Issue 26, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-023-00146-z


General recommendations how to use AI

ALLEA – All European Academies: The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity – Revised Edition, 2023. https://doi.org/10.26356/ECOC

New recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: use of artificial intelligence (Fernando Alfonso and Filippo Crea, European Heart Journal, Volume 44, Issue 31, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehad448

Best Practices for Using AI When Writing Scientific Manuscripts (Jillian M. Buriak, Deji Akinwande, Natalie Artzi et al., ACS Nano, Volume 17, Issue 5, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.3c01544

Guideline for Dealing with Artificial Intelligence (Berlin Universities Publishing, 2024)

Stellungnahme des Präsidiums der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) zum Einfluss generativer Modelle für die Text- und Bilderstellung auf die Wissenschaften und das Förderhandeln der DFG, 2023.

Elsevier: Publishing Ethics (Hinweise zur Nutzung von künstlicher Intelligenz finden sich sowohl unter “Duties of Authors” als auch “Duties of Reviewers”).

Tools such as ChatGPT threaten transparent science; here are our ground rules for their use (Nature, 2023).

Science Journals: Editorial Policies

Generative AI in Scholarly Communications: Ethical and Practical Guidelines for the Use of Generative AI in the Publication Process (STM, 2023).

Chatbots, Generative AI, and Scholarly Manuscripts – WAME Recommendations on Chatbots and Generative Artificial Intelligence in Relation to Scholarly Publications (Chris Zielinski, Margaret A. Winker, Rakesh Aggarwa et al. on behalf of the WAME board, WAME, 2023).


Use of artificial intelligence in peer review

AI-assisted peer review (Alessandro Checco, Lorenzo Bracciale, Pierpaolo Loreti et al., Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, Volume 8, Issue 25, 2021). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-00703-8

Fighting reviewer fatigue or amplifying bias? Considerations and recommendations for use of ChatGPT and other large language models in scholarly peer review (Mohammad Hosseini und Serge P.J.M. Horbach, Research Integrity and Peer Review, Volume 8, Issue 4, 2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-023-00133-5

Using AI in Peer Review Is a Breach of Confidentiality (Mike Lauer, Stephanie Constant und Amy Wernimont, NIH Center for Scientific Review, 2023).

Is the future of peer review automated? (Robert Schulz, Adrian Barnett, René Bernard et al., BMC Research Notes, Volume 15, Issue 203, 2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-022-06080-6

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